In 1978, the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research created "The Belmont Report." The report encompasses three key principles for research involving human participants: respect for persons (autonomy), beneficence, and justice.
Declaration of Helsinki
In 1964, the World Medical Association developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a set of ethical principles for the medical community regarding human experimentation. The Declaration, which is the basis for Good Clinical Practices used today, was mostly recently revised in 2008.
The Nuremberg Code was developed at the end of World War II following the Nuremberg Trials. The Code encompases many of the basic principles governing the ethical conduct of human subjects research today and states that "the voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential."